While aircraft can be made from hundreds of thousands to millions of items depending on their size, they all relatively resemble one another once assembled. Consisting of 5 primary parts, the pieces that come together to create man-made flight include the fuselage, empennage, wings, powerplant, and landing gear. Constructed and ever-evolving to make flight as fast, efficient, and safe as possible, these components are held to strict maintenance protocols regarding their design and manufacture to ensure planes of any size are airworthy and ready for takeoff.


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The wonder of flight would not be possible without the wing. From takeoff to landing, aircraft use their wings to steady and steer, so it would make sense that a plane with larger wings should perform better; however, the optimal size of an aircraft’s wing is dependent on a variety of factors. Some large aircraft require smaller wings which means they have what is referred to as high wing loading. The wing loading of an aircraft is calculated by dividing the total weight of the aircraft by the lifting surface area of its wings. Depending on the wing loading, aircraft will have different stall speeds and maneuvering abilities, as well as takeoff and landing performances. This blog will explore how wing loading works and the effects of this ratio on flight.


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Pressure switches happen to fall under the category of “pressure sensors.” A pressure sensor is a device used for measuring the pressure of liquids and gasses. As such, the pressure sensor category also includes pressure transmitters, pressure senders, and pressure transducers. In the realm of instrumentation and processing, a sensor can be defined as a device used for detecting changes in electrical, physical, and chemical properties, while producing an electrical output as a result of that change. In this blog, to better understand the function and use of pressure switches, we will discuss the components that comprise them, and their various types.


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When traveling on an aircraft, you may have noticed a large seat behind certain aircraft sections with excess legroom. These are called bulkhead seats, and they are located at places on the aircraft where a physical partition exists to separate fuselage sections. In addition to providing additional passenger comfort, these sections of the aircraft play an important role in aircraft structure and stability. In this blog, we will discuss bulkheads and bulkhead seats, giving you everything you need to know about this fuselage element.


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Fasteners are critical components found in a myriad of industrial operations, ranging from marine and medical to aerospace and aviation applications. Bolts, nuts, and screws are just three classes of fasteners, each of which serve different roles. While they may look similar in appearance, bolts, nuts, and screws vary in many aspects. With this in mind, we will be taking a look at those particular distinctions and the functions such fasteners serve.


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The fluid systems of a typical aircraft are crucial for its proper functionality, and they often comprise networks of fluid lines that transport fluids and protect components such as instrumentation. Fluid lines may come in numerous forms, hoses and tubing serving as the most common options. As aircraft hoses and tubing ensure the proper transportation of fuel, oil, coolant, and oxygen, as well as the protection of instrumentation and hydraulic lines, it can be important to know more about them for proper maintenance, replacement, and implementation.


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Within the realm of aviation and fluid dynamics, turbulence is used to refer to fluid conditions in which pressure and flow velocity haphazardly fluctuate. With turbulence, air will move up and down, change direction and speed, and ripple out as the aircraft faces irregular motion. While turbulence is not always concerning, it is definitely an atmospheric condition that pilots strive to avoid due to the discomfort it brings to personnel and passengers, as well as the potential risks it can bring if conditions are very poor. As aircraft are specifically designed to create lift through their individual interactions with atmospheric air, they may vary in their performance during turbulent conditions based on their airframe, flight systems, and other factors.


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Although tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding is commonly practiced for pipeline and pipe welding, it can be used among various industries to provide welds made from specialized materials. As fillers are not necessary for TIG welds, the process works by creating a welding arc formed between a non-consumable tungsten electrode and the component being welded. Suitable for manual welding, mechanized welding, and welding robot applications, a TIG welder must consist of the following: a power source, grounding cable, welding torch, and a shield gas tank or gas network interface. As TIG welding requires a skilled hand, we will be discussing the proper technique required for TIG welding, and its applications among the aviation industry.


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Aircraft maintenance and repair is a highly litigious and systematic process. Airplane travel is the safest form of passenger travel because of the regulation and attention to detail involved in maintenance. The FAA is the regulatory body in the United States that governs aviation maintenance, and many international agencies have modeled themselves after the FAA. This blog will discuss the general process of aircraft maintenance and repair, and the FAA regulations that govern it.


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When your aircraft requires maintenance and repair, it can be extremely beneficial to have the right aircraft parts and accessories on hand to expedite the process. With high quality, robust parts, one can ensure that their aircraft remains airworthy and safe for flight. The replacement of aircraft parts and aircraft supplies can sometimes be daunting, requiring an individual to take on the responsibility of procuring the correct items without mistake. To help you better understand how to efficiently and correctly buy aircraft parts, we will discuss some common tips.


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While aircraft manufacturers seek to continue engine development for new forms of propulsion generation, almost all modern aircraft still rely on the fuel-and-air combustion process for driving systems for flight. Ignition is a crucial part of engine processes, ensuring the efficient burning of fuel-and-air mixtures to produce hot, rapidly expanding exhaust gases that are capable of actuating turbine assemblies, cylinder assemblies, and other systems. In this blog, we will discuss the common ignition systems found across various aircraft types and models, allowing you to better understand their functionality and makeup.


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A transformer is an electric device that is tasked with transferring electrical energy from one circuit to another. Transformers are often used for interconnecting a power grid for residential and business buildings, regularly handling high amounts of voltage. With the current traveling through such devices, it is important that they are well insulated for the protection of internal and external components. Insulation failures are one of the most common sources of transformer failures, thus one should know how to properly insulate such devices. In this blog, we will discuss the most common insulating materials used for such assemblies and how they help manage electricity.


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Internal lighting systems provide passengers and crewmen with visual assistance for many essential purposes. Though not commonly used in general aviation, illumination of the cabin and cockpit are common occurrences within older and newer passenger-centric aircraft. Found within the vehicle for the purpose of general illumination and coming in the form of cabin & compartment lighting, signage, cockpit lights, controls, and more, these lighting systems work together to provide easy visibility for safety purposes, acknowledgment of specific aircraft locations, and passenger comfort. Culminated through the study of how lighting can impose various psychological effects on passengers, airline manufacturers have utilized gathered information to create a more enjoyable experience for all aboard. To better understand how interior aircraft lighting works, we will dive into how such features have evolved and why they are an essential factor in creating an inviting atmosphere for flyers.


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Across multiple industrial applications, industrial generators are crucial for ensuring a continuous supply of power even in the event of a main grid system failure. To provide a facility or application with sufficient backup power, such generators are very powerful and are designed to act as an uninterrupted power supply. Due to the potential hazards associated with industrial generator operation, it is important to be aware of common safety tip to minimize risks for the benefit of a workplace.


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Rigging and lifting equipment is paramount to many industries, allowing operators to move heavy or large objects safely and easily. Rigging equipment can come in many forms depending on the need, and common pieces include cranes, wire ropes, hooks, shackles, and other hardware components. Whether you need rigging and lifting equipment for material handling, shipping, or even rescue missions, it is paramount that one utilizes the correct pieces for their application and procedures. To help you find the right pieces for your needs, we will discuss some common considerations that should be made before making a decision.


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A piston ring is a metallic split ring attached to the outer diameter of a piston within an internal combustion engine. Located between the cylinder and the piston, the piston ring is a necessary component that allows the engine to operate efficiently. In this blog, we will discuss the functions and design of piston rings in detail.


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A Parts Manufacturer Approval, or PMA, is a combined design and production approval for modification and replacement articles. Once a manufacturer receives a PMA, it allows them to manufacture and distribute these articles for use on type certificated products. A PMA is not only an approval of the aircraft parts manufacturing process itself, but serves as the FAA’s approval to manufacture specific aviation-related parts. It is issued for the production of parts to be used to modify or replace other parts, which includes materials, parts, processes, and appliances.


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As pilots conduct countless flight operations across the globe, flight instruments serve to provide critical data concerning the aircraft’s position, speed, heading, and more. With the altimeter in particular, the pilot can always be aware of the aircraft’s height in relation to sea-level. As such readings are critical to the safe operation of the aircraft, it is extremely important that pilots are familiar with altimeters and how to utilize their information to make well-informed flight decisions.


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